The Role of Low Blood Glucose Level of Mothers with Severe Preeclampsia in Fetal Growth Restriction: a Mini-Study
Background. The number of patients with severe preeclampsia continues to increase worldwide. Blood glucose is significantly decreased in severe preeclampsia patients, starting at the sudden onset of high blood pressure. This depicts the state of low placental energy status in preeclampsia patients with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), due to either glycolysis or ischemia disorders resulting from decreased maternal placental blood flow.
Aim. To observe the relationship between mother’s random blood glucose level with fetal growth restriction complications during acute onset of severe preeclampsia.
Methods. A cross-sectional study, random sampling involving twenty-one pregnant women with severe preeclampsia who underwent cesarean section at Permata Bunda Hospital, Malang, Indonesia. Data were taken from medical records, which included: mother’s random blood glucose, blood pressure, proteinuria, and complete blood count. Fetal data includes body weight and length. The data were obtained at the subjects’ initial admission in the emergency room during the acute phase of the preeclampsia.
Result. Maternal blood glucose had a negative and significant relationship with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.843, p < 0.0001) and with newborn body weight (r = 0.465, p = 0.034) in the acute onset of severe preeclampsia.
Conclusion. The blood glucose level of patients at the acute onset of preeclampsia is inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. The blood glucose level is also correlated with fetal weight. However, due to the chronic nature of IUGR, future studies should analyze the relationship between blood glucose, blood pressure, and fetal growth through multiple stages of pregnancy
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